La presidente di Fedespedi, Silvia Moretto, è intervenuta all’8° Rapporto Annuale “Italian Maritime Economy” di SRM ponendo l’accento sulla concentrazione dell’offerta nel mercato dei trasporti via mare.

 

Si è tenuto a Napoli, presso il Grand Hotel Vesuvio, l’8° Rapporto Annuale “Italian Maritime Economy” di SRM, centro Studi collegato al Gruppo Intesa Sanpaolo e specializzato nell’analisi delle filiere produttive e del turismo.

Ad intervenire anche Silvia Moretto, presidente di FedespediFederazione nazionale delle imprese di spedizioni internazionali – che ha voluto porre l’accento sulla concentrazione dell’offerta nel mercato dei trasporti via mare:

“Il Covid-19 ci ha lasciato una lezione da imparare: quando il mercato è controllato da pochi operatori vi sono grandi rischi. I carrier marittimi concentrati in tre grandi alleanze hanno saputo controllare intelligentemente la capacità di stiva disponibile per contenere i costi. Lo hanno potuto fare perché esiste il Consortia Block Exemption Regulation UE che consente alle shipping line di scambiarsi dati commercialmente sensibili al fine di condividere la capacità di carico sulle navi e coordinare la programmazione delle rotte. Si tratta di una deroga alle normative antitrust europee cui sono soggette, invece, tutte le imprese operanti lungo la supply chain marittima. Questa condizione ha portato oggi a noli quintuplicati rispetto al periodo pre Covid sulle principali rotte commerciali (Europa-Far East e Transpacifica), a congestione dei porti, penuria di container, affidabilità che è arrivata a toccare il picco negativo del 35%, il tutto con inevitabili ricadute sui prezzi al consumo.”

La Consortia Block Exemption Regulations (CBER) è una speciale deroga alla disciplina antitrust comunitaria concessa dalla Commissione europea ai trasportatori marittimi nel 1992 e prorogata lo scorso anno fino al 2024, grazie alla quale i colossi del mare hanno potuto legittimamente riunirsi in tre grandi consorzi – 2M, Ocean Alliance e The Alliance – capaci di esercitare un potere immenso su tutta la filiera. Una misura che, seppur concepita per uno scopo ben preciso, ossia quello di accrescere l’efficienza delle operazioni di trasporto, dà ormai l’impressione di favorire gli accordi distorsivi del mercato e del gioco della concorrenza tra le grandi compagnie di trasporto. In sostanza, dunque, il mercato della navigazione è pacificamente configurabile come un oligopolio. Un oligopolio legittimato da disposizioni ad hoc, per giunta.

Le conseguenze di questa situazione – conclude Moretto – le paghiamo tuttiterminalisti, spedizionieri, caricatori, consumatori finali. Con una eccezione: le compagnie di navigazione, che, secondo i dati elaborati da SRM, hanno guadagnato 27 miliardi di dollari nel 2020. Numero destinato a triplicarsi nel 2021, arrivando a sfiorare, secondo Drewry, i 100 miliardi”.

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